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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 20 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 高強、黃旭男、Toshiyuki Sueyoshi (2003) ,管理績效評估-資料包絡分析法,華泰文化事業公司。
  2. 陳柏琪(民97)。台灣農會經營績效之評估―多部門資料包絡法之應用,國立臺灣大學生物資源暨農學院農業經濟研究所博士論文。
  3. 傅翊賢(民97)。台灣食品業經營績效分析,國立台灣大學社會科學院國家發展研究所碩士論文。
  4. 楊湘筑、戴劍鋒、彭克仲(民100)。應用Entropy 權重法與TOPSIS 於臺灣上市食品公司財務績效評估模式之研究,台灣農會學報,12(3):232-249
  5. 蔡秋田、王媛慧(民95)。廠商生產效率與股票報酬之關聯-資料包絡分析法的應用,Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 136-145
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭姝辰(2013)。航空公司經營績效之研究-以中華、長榮及復興航空為例。長榮大學國際企業學系(所)學位論文。2013。1-60。 
  2. 巫宜株(2015)。台灣食品產業效率與生產力之研究─兼論食安問題比較分析。逢甲大學合作經濟暨社會事業經營學系學位論文。2015。1-96。 
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