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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 6. 呂錦山、廖俊雄、李志文、戴輝煌、楊清喬、林繼昌,「高雄港開發轉運市場暨75號、120號貨櫃碼頭營運模式可行性分析」,臺灣港務股份有限公司高雄分公司委託研究計畫,民國一百零一年。
  2. 8. 林秀碧、楊銘欽、葉宏明,醫院服務區域的界定與市場競爭程度之分析-以台中市某區域醫院為例,中興大學企業管理學系所碩士論文,民國九十八年。
  3. 11. 陳春益、呂錦隆、曾俊鵬、陳嘉良,「海運承攬運送業載運規劃問題之探討」,2006海空運論文研討會論文集,長榮大學,民國九十五年。
  4. 13. 陳春益、姚宛欣,「高雄港貨櫃轉運之探討」,2009海空運論文研討會論文集,長榮大學。民國九十八年。
  5. 16. 陳依伶、徐國裕,「貨櫃船大型化對未來海運經營管理之影響」,船舶與海運期刊,中國海運協會編印,編號867,民國九十年,頁1-9。
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