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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 52 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王斐青、洪維廷、尚瑞國(民93)。台灣地區國際經營型態與經營效率之衡量。亞太經濟管理評論,第七卷第一、二期,頁109-123。
  2. 王克陸、彭雅惠及陳美燁民(民96)。台灣金控子瑩行經營效率之評估-使用DEA方法。科技管理學刊,第十二卷第二期,頁1-28。
  3. 王肇蘭、許義忠、許瑋初(民97)。台灣地區政府效率暨生產力之評估。應用經濟論叢,84期,頁71-120。
  4. 王媛慧、李文福(民93)。我國地區醫院技術效率之研究-DEA方法的應用。經濟研究,40:1,頁61-95。
  5. 李正文、陳翔修(民97)。台灣光電產業之經營效率分析-資料包絡分析法之應用。中元企管評論,第六卷第一期,頁1-30。
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