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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 107 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 一、中文文獻
  2. 1.專書
  3. Bruce Dennis Sales, Susan Folkman主編,李是慰譯(2009),研究倫理:以人為受試對象,臺北:五南。[Sales, Bruce D. & Susan Folkman, eds. 2000. Ethics in research with human participants. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.]
  4. Peter A. Singer著,蔡甫昌譯(2004),臨床生命倫理學,臺北:財團法人醫院評鑑暨醫療品質策進會。[Singer, Peter A. 1999. Bioethics at the Bedside: A Clinician's Guide. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Medical Association.]
  5. 王玫、王薏雯、江虹瑾、吳建華、李元鳳、汪徽五、林志六、林勇良、林建興、林首愈、林婉婷、邵愛玫、徐麗娟、陳易宏、陳恆德、陳淑儀、陶楷韻、黃千真、葉嘉新、廖宗志、歐士田、盧青佑、蕭嘉玲、蘇莉莉(2008),新藥開發與臨床試驗,臺北:秀威。
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