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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 174 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王甫昌 (2008) 由若隱若現到大鳴大放:台灣社會學中族群研究的崛起。見謝國雄等主編,群學爭鳴:台灣社會學發展史,1945-2005,頁447-521。台北:群學。
  2. ─── (2008) 族群政治議題在台灣民主化轉型中的角色。台灣民主季刊5(2): 89-140。
  3. 王振寰 (2010) 現代國家的興起:從殖民、威權到民主體制的國家機器。見黃金麟、汪宏倫、黃崇憲主編,帝國邊緣:台灣現代性的考察,頁101-136。台北:群學。
  4. 王振寰、錢永祥 (1995) 邁向新國家?民粹威權主義的形成與民主問題。台灣社會研究季刊 20: 17-55。
  5. 朱雲漢 (2004) 台灣民主發展的困境與挑戰。台灣民主季刊1(1): 143-162。
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