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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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鄭銘德 , Ph.D  Advisor:黃敏枝  


宋代富民義利Sung DynastyRich people

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 166 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. Robert P. Hymes, Statesmen and Gentlemen: The Elite of Fu-Chou, Chiang-His In Northern and Southern Sung. Cambridge U. Press, 1986.
    2. 王曾瑜《宋朝階級結構》(石家莊:河北教育出版社,1996年)
    3. 孟淑慧《朱熹及其門人的教化理念與實踐》(台北:國立台灣大學文學院,2003年,台大文史叢刊122)
    4. 張邦煒《婚姻與社會-宋代》(成都:四川人民,1989年)
    5. 梁庚堯《南宋的農地利用政策》(台北:國立台灣大學文學院,1977年)
    Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
    1. 蘇健倫(2009)。晚唐至北宋陳州符氏將門研究。清華大學歷史研究所學位論文。2009。1-159。 
    2. 楊博淳(2012)。損有餘補不足:宋朝義倉研究。中正大學歷史學系學位論文。2012。1-152。
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