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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 91 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. William H. McNeill著,楊玉齡譯,〈瘟疫與人-傳染病對人類歷史的衝擊〉,台北,天下遠見出版,1998.04。
  2. 牛惠之,〈WTO技術性貿易障礙(TBT)協定就安全貿之適用與限制〉,第六屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會,2006.03。
  3. 牛惠之,〈WTO技術性貿易障礙(TBT)協定就安全貿易之適用與限制─環保標示 GMO標示之評析〉,發表於第六屆國際經貿法發展學術研討會,國立政治大學國際經貿組織國際法律研究中心主辦,2006.03。
  4. 李貴英,〈國際貿易與國家安全-GATT第ⅩⅩⅠ條安全例外條款之研析〉,《台大法學論叢》,第34卷第4期,2005.07。
  5. 林倫帆,《WTO貨品貿易協定中必要性概念之研究》,台大法律研究所,2004.07。
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