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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 76 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 3. F. Wudl and S. Hoger, PCT Patent Application WO 94/20589 (1991)
    2. 4. D. Braun, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett., 58. 1982 (1991)
    3. 5. G. Gustafsson, G. M. Treacy, Y. Cao, F. Klavetter, N. Colaneri, and A. J. Heeger, Nature (London) , 357, 477 (1992)
    4. 6. G. Yu, Synth. Met. 80, 143 (1996)
    5. 10. Vrij, A. Discuss. Faraday Soc., 42, 23 (1966)
    Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
    1. 李威政(2013)。以分散於PMMA基材和超薄膜除潤方法,研究分子局部機械應力與形變對共軛高分子MEH-PPV光電效率以及壽命之影響。清華大學材料科學工程學系學位論文。2013。1-109。 
    2. 章金蓮(2009)。國中原住民族學生族語學習態度 與學習適應之研究。臺東大學進修部教育行政碩士班(夜間)學位論文。2009。1-134。 
    3. 陳炳志(2010)。表面除潤摩擦形變引起之共軛高分子巨大之光電增益。清華大學材料科學工程學系學位論文。2010。1-96。
    4. 劉奇京(2013)。共軛高分子奈米薄膜在溶劑蒸氣內之機械穩定度與光電行為變化。清華大學材料科學工程學系學位論文。2013。1-93。
    5. 郭文居(2014)。臺灣以「中華台北」模式 參與國際運動競賽之研究 -以2013年世界棒球經典賽為例。中正大學戰略暨國際事務研究所學位論文。2014。1-100。
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