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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 457 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 鄧 韍 《嘉靖常熟縣志》(史學叢書,台北:臺灣學生書局,1987)
    2. 洪金富《元代監察制度研究》(台北:國立台灣大學歷史學研究所,1972)。
    3. 2009)。
    4. 32-41
    5. 村上正二〈元朝に於ける投下の意義〉,《蒙古學報》第1號(1940)
    Times Cited (10) 〈TOP〉
    1. 張耀中(2008)。我國公營事業民營化後其公司治理與風險之關聯性及對績效之影響。淡江大學會計學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-76。 
    2. 柳文惠(2013)。戰後台灣自行車產業發展的政治經濟分析,1950-2013。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2013。1-130。 
    3. 楊水美(2006)。臺灣地區銀行產業發展之政經分析,1945-2006。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2006。1-234。 
    4. 舒坤停(2006)。清代清水地區發展之研究。臺灣師範大學歷史學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2006。1-202。
    5. 陳昭揚(2007)。征服王朝下的士人 ── 金代漢族士人的政治、社會、文化論析。清華大學歷史研究所學位論文。2007。1-285。
    Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
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