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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2.工研院資通所產經中心(2012),全球4G服務市場發展分析,新竹:財團法人工業技術研究院資通所產經中心。
  2. 7.李彥廷(2011),台灣4G行動通訊產業行銷策略與評估分析-G公司個案研究,國立中央大學資訊管理學系碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  3. 17.徐婉雯(2009),零元行銷之探討:以電信產業為例,國立成功大學電信管理研究所碩士論文。
  4. 28.賴鈺成(2012),台灣電信產業的併購研究,台北:國家發展委員會綜合規劃處。
  5. 29.魏伊伶(2010),雲端服務市場關鍵成功因素與台灣廠商機會分析,新竹:財團法人工業技術研究院產業經濟與趨勢研中心。
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