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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 55 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Compaq White Paper,”ECG Technology Communication Group, “Customer Relationship Management Solution Primer”,June,1999.
  2. Conlon S.,”No Turning Back,Sales & Marketing Management”, Ginger,1999.
  3. Davids M.,“How to avoid the 10 biggest mistakes in CRM”, The Journal of Business Strategy,Nov/Dec,1999:20-30.
  4. Gordon S.L.,“CRM:the Intelligent Enterprise ?”,Intelligent Enterprise, November,1999:8-13.
  5. Guadagno N.,”The new economy demands Web-enabled call centers”,Call Center Solutions,July,2000:62-5.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張麗卿(2009)。壽險公司客服中心運作與知識流程之研究。淡江大學保險學系保險經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2009。1-90。 
  2. 莊玉玲(2005)。顧客關係管理對顧客滿意度與忠誠度影響之研究 - 以台灣砷化鎵半導體磊晶廠為例。中原大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2005。1-127。
  3. 林峰慶(2011)。以資料探勘技術探討通訊行顧客消費模式及顧客價值。虎尾科技大學工業工程與管理研究所在職專班學位論文。2011。1-45。
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