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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 136 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 6. Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich(1997). The GATT-WTO Dispute Settlement System:International Law , International Organizations and Dispute Settlement. Kluwer Law International.
  2. 2. 牛惠之(1999),〈國際環境公約與GATT/WTO之潛在衝突:論相關於環境貿易措施與獎勵性措施之運用與爭議〉,《國立台灣大學法學論叢》第二十八卷第四期,第193頁至第245頁。
  3. 9. 洪德欽(1999),〈WTO爭端解決體系之研究〉,《國立台灣大學法學論叢》第二十八卷第四期,第247頁至第316頁。
  4. 9. Chua , Adrian T.L. (1998). “Reasonable Expectations and Non-Violation Complaints in GATT/WTO Jurisprudence”, 32(2) Journal of World Trade , at 27-50.
  5. 15. Hansen , Patricia Isela. (1999). “Antitrust in the Global Market: Rethinking “Reasonable Expectations”, S. Cal. L. Rev. Vol.72, at 1601-1649.
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