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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 29 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 7. Andrew S. Grove (1996), Only the paranoid survive! : the threat and promise of strategic inflection points,十倍速時代,王平原譯,大塊文化。
  2. 一、中文部分
  3. 1. 經濟部中小企業處(民90),九十年經濟部中小企業白皮書。
  4. 2. 經濟部中小企業處(民89),八十九年經濟部中小企業白皮書。
  5. 3. 經濟部(民89),「企業大型化、集團化發展趨勢對中小企業之衝擊與因應」,
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭國棟(2005)。電子儀器產業國際行銷策略之研究-以K公司在中國市場為例。臺北科技大學工業工程與管理系碩士班學位論文。2005。1-178。 
  2. 陳金蘭(2009)。顧客關係行銷及貿易代理理論之實證研究–以台灣中部地區中小型五金業為例。朝陽科技大學企業管理系學位論文。2009。1-94。
  3. 楊美香(2010)。台灣中部中小企業女性領導者之領導模式。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-143。
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