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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Abernathy, W.J., Clark, K.B., “Innovation: Mapping the Winds of Creative Destruction”, Research Policy, 1985,Vol.14, pp.3-12
  2. 3. Athaide, G.A., Meyers, P. W., and Wilemon, D. L., “Seller-Buyer Interaction during the Commercialization of Technological Process Innovations”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol.13, 1996, pp.406-421
  3. 4. Bardaracco, J., The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete Through Strategic Alliance. Harvard Business School Press, 1991, Boston , MA.
  4. 5. Barney, J., “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, Vol.17, 1991, pp.99-120
  5. 7. Bidault, F., and Cummings, T., “Innovating Through Alliances: Expetations and Limitations”, R & D Management, Vol.24, 1994, pp.33-45
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 谷婉琳(2010)。兩岸電機電子產業國際驗證服務之品牌權益、關係行銷對再購意願影響之研究 ─以新產品績效為干擾變數。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-132。 
  2. 陳立賢(2007)。技術導向、市場導向、產品創新績效與企業競爭力關係之研究-以台灣製藥業為例。成功大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2007。1-73。
  3. 江家慶(2012)。產品經理溝通平台之建立。臺北大學企業管理學系學位論文。2012。1-93。
  4. 李政憲(2012)。市場導向、市場創新能力、行銷投入對行銷能力及績效之影響: 以幼稚園產業為例。中興大學高階經理人碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-109。
  5. 黃建維(2014)。知識管理能力類型與新產品開發績效關係之研究。中央大學企業管理學系學位論文。2014。1-113。
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