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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 52 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Agarwal, S. & Ramaswami, S.N. (1992). “Choice of foreign market entry mode: Impact of ownership, location and internalization factors. Journal of International Business Studies, (First Quarter): 1-27.
  2. Anderson, E. & Gatignon, H. (1986). ”Modes of foreign entry: A transaction cost analysis and performance.” Journal of International Business Studies, 17(3), 1-27.
  3. Brouthers, K. D.(2002).” Institutional, Cultural and Transaction Cost Influences on Entry Mode Choice and Performance.” Journal of International Business Studies, 33, 203-221. Retrieved January 2, 2003.
  4. Carpenter, G.S. & Nakamoto, K. (1989),”Consumer preference formation and pioneering advantage.”Journal of Marketing, 26,285.
  5. Carpenter, G.S. & Nakamoto, K. (1990),”Competitive strategy for late entry into a market with ad.” ,Management Science,36(10),12-68.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林欣毅(2006)。新產品創新與市場導入優勢關聯性之研究﹣以iPod為例。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士班學位論文。2006。1-115。 
  2. 魏欣儀(2006)。廠商跨界學習能力與文化鄰近性?以台商在中國方便麵產品創新為例。臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文。2006。1-111。 
  3. 李紫雲(2004)。國際化動機、營運與績效關係之研究─以台灣餐飲業為例。大同大學事業經營學系所學位論文。2004。1-122。
  4. 黃靖宇(2005)。機電自動化產業與進入策略之研究 - 以台灣變頻器產業進入大陸市場為例。淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班學位論文。2005。1-110。
  5. 許世川(2005)。進入時機、進入模式與經營績效關係之研究 -以大陸台商液晶顯示器零組件產業區域群聚為對象。中原大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2005。1-93。
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