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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 40 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 4. 高蘭芬(2001),「董監事股權質押之代理問題對會計資訊與公司績效之影響」,成功大學會計學系博士班論文。
  2. 7. Akerlof, A.(1970), “The Market for‘Lemons’: Qualitative Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism”,Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s 84: 488-500.
  3. 8. Allen, S. (1984), “Trade Union, Absenteeism and Exit-Voice”,Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37:331-345.
  4. 9. Arnott, R. and J.E. Stiglitz (1988),“Randomization with Asymmetric Information”, RAND Journal of economics 19(3):344-362.
  5. 10. Balcer, Y. and E. Sadka (1982),“Horizontal Equity, Income Taxation, and Self-selection with an Application to Income Tax Credit”, Journal of Public Economics 19:291-310.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳柏奇(2005)。中國國有企業之公司治理研究-契約失效問題。淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班學位論文。2005。1-99。 
  2. 林榆芝(2010)。地主特質對申請都市更新事業計畫影響之賽局分析—以台北市為例。臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所學位論文。2010。1-75。 
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