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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 45 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 尤隨樺,2006,產品多樣性、不確定性與製造績效:晶圓代工廠商之實地實證研究,會計評論,第42期,頁55 – 79。
  2. 李玉振,林淑淑,1988,協助國內傳統工業升級調查研究計畫—自行車工業分項報告,財團法人工業技術研究院。
  3. 吳孟玲,林月雲,2002,台灣自行車產業之組織死亡率分析-組織生態觀點。管理評論,第21捲第3期:115-136。
  4. 張永佶,蔡敦浩,林文玲,陳可杰,2006,並聯研發與競爭優勢:台灣自行車產業的個案研究,管理評論,第25卷第4期:97-129。
  5. 游啓聰,金美敬,劉慶文,2000,自行車產業綜論,財團法人工業技術研究院。
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