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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 131 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王心盈(2009)。批判思考教學成效之後設分析(未出版的碩士論文)。台東教育大學教育系,台東縣。
  2. 吳耀明(2007)。問題本位學習在國小自然科之應用研究。新竹教育大學學報,21,35-73。
  3. 李松濤,林煥祥,洪振方(2010)。探究式教學對學童科學論證能力之影響。科學教育學刊,18(3),177-203。
  4. 李筱雲(2009)。不同問題結構的問題本位學習對八年級學生自我導向科學學習表現之影響(未出版的碩士論文)。中原大學教育研究所,桃園縣。
  5. 林志能、洪振方(2008)。論證模式分析及其評量要素。科學教育月刊,312,2-18。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳小惠(2013)。國小科學教師實施問題本位學習 的困難及因應策略。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2013。1-98。
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