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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 48 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Adler, Ronald B, & Neil, Towne. (2002). Looking out, looking in.
  2. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: WW Norton.
  3. Fehr, Beverley. (2000). The life cycle of friendship. Close relationships: A sourcebook, 71-82.
  4. Glesne, Corrine. (1999). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (2 ed.): Longman White Plains, NY.
  5. Heiman, Tali. (2000). Friendship quality among children in three educational settings. Journal of Intellectual and developmental Disability, 25(1), 1-12.
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 卓玲聿(2002)。策略性人力資源、組織文化與組織績效之關係---以金融業為例。成功大學工業管理科學系學位論文。2002。1-73。
  2. 張永欽(2002)。台北市立國小校長領導行為塑造學校組織文化與學校效能之研究。國立臺北教育大學國民教育研究所學位論文。2002。1-275。
  3. 王見福(2003)。光電產業「組織文化、行銷策略與顧客關係管理」對組織績效影響之實證研究。成功大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2003。1-141。
  4. 褚彥希(2004)。行銷執行力決定因素之分析-以台灣電子資訊產業為例。臺灣大學國際企業學研究所學位論文。2004。1-137。
  5. 林金淑(2007)。中小企業台商外派幹部管理認知之衡量與診斷- 以A公司為例。崑山科技大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2007。1-101。
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