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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王千倖(2003)。以「網路同儕教學」建構「網路學習社群」之行動研究。彰化師大學報,48(1),119-142。
  2. 林清山(1992)。心理與教育統計學。台北:東華書局。
  3. 林傑毓, 莊春蘭, 郭莉雯,林漢瓊. (2006)。 網路學習方式、學習評量方式與醫療人員網路學習成效之關係。人文暨社會科學期刊, 2(1), 41-50.
  4. 林泰安(2008)。問題導向學習府以網路合作模式應用於石門水庫集水區地理環境教育成效評量之研究(未出版碩士論文)。台灣師範大學,台北。
  5. 教育部(2008a)。九年一貫課程綱要。教育部,台北。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪禎瞰(2017)。「問題本位學習」融入班級科展活動對國小五年級學童的自我導向學習之個案研究-以桃園市某國小為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-108。
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