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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱博湧、鄧美貞、 黃基鴻,2005,垂直整合與虛擬整合商業模式之績效比較: 台灣積體電路産業實證,交大管理學報,第二十五卷第一期,頁1-27。
  2. 江淑玲、林麗容,2007,我國中小企業盈餘管理行為之探討性研究 - 德爾菲法之應用. 東吳經濟商學學報,第五十七期,頁79–109。
  3. 林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美花,2005,質性研究方法: 訪談模式與實施步驟分析,身心障礙研究,第三卷第二期,頁122-136。
  4. 洪志洋、高立翰,2012,產業接軌與價值創造的挑戰:臺灣產業創新契機,創業管理研究, 第七卷第四期,頁45-82。
  5. 徐弘光,2006,台灣專利聯盟(Patent Pool)的可行性探討─以國際產業標準的營運模式為例,政治大學碩士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 彭國樑(2015)。專利審核、專利委外與專利獎勵機制對公司專利產出影響之研究-以Android手機製造廠商為例。中正大學會計資訊與法律數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-80。
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