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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 68 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 牛涵錚、楊勝欽,2012,研發人員科學素養量表之建構-以台灣電子資訊業為例,商略學報,4卷1期,頁59-74。
  2. 阮瑋琳、萬光滿、蔡淨鈺、江敏慧,2013,領導-成員交換關係、心理契約與組織承諾之研究-以國籍航空公司為例,管理實務與理論研究,7卷4期,頁92-106。
  3. 何孟穎、呂紹旭、李彥蒲、林穎毅、胡仕儀、郭子菱、陳逸民、陳婉如,2012,2011~2012年全球光電市場與台灣光電產業總論,頁4-7,台北:財團法人光電科技工業協進會(PIDA)。
  4. 李元堯、陳鴻雁、許富淑,2014,運動中心員工工作滿意度、組織承諾與離職傾向之研究,輔仁大學體育學刊,13期,頁236-266。
  5. 李雅憫,2012,結合AHP與DEMATEL來評估基層員工之績效,國立虎尾科技大學工業工程與管理學系碩士論文。
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