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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 89 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李惠蘭、蔡昆瀛(2009)。融合教育下特殊教育課程設計之探討。國小特殊教育,47,39-50。
  2. 林佳靜(2008)。應用『全方位數學課程』與『合作教學』對融合教育教室中國小學生數學學習之行動研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  3. 周中天(1994)。臺灣省及臺北市高中聯招英語科試題命題原則探析。教學與研究,16,103~153。
  4. 胡永崇、蔡進昌、陳正專(2001)。高雄地區國小普通班教師對融合教育態度之研究。國民教育研究集刊,9,235-257。
  5. 鈕文英(2006)。國小普通班認知障礙學生課程與教學調整方案之發展與成效研究。國立台南大學特殊教育學系特殊教育與復健學報,15,21~58。
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