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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 21 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [5]蕭惠文(2003),跨國企業新產品開發程序之個案研究,中原大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文。
  2. [6]張智輝(2003),新產品開發流程之績效指標建立與評估,中原大學工業工程研究所碩士論文。
  3. [7]黃有俞, 張添盛(2009),縮短新產品開發時程之研究-以高爾夫球具業為例,科技管理學刊,14(3),pp.9。
  4. [9]蔣國雄(2001),建構在產品資料管理(PDM)上的知識管理系統之探討-以鋁合金鋼圈產業為例,中原大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文。
  5. [16]吳目誠, 張雅惠(2006),Dreamweaver 8資料庫網頁製作,網奕資訊科技股份有限公司。
Times Cited (11) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂采縈(2013)。高雄市國中體育教師休閒運動參與動機及工作投入之研究。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-106。 
  2. 李婉萍;鄭溫暖;畢璐鑾(2013)。休閒運動課程介入對新北市國小學童運動態度與運動習慣之效益。嘉大體育健康休閒期刊。12(1)。110-122。 
  3. 曹以樂(2003)。大台北地區青少年休閒認知與參與行為之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2003。1-176。
  4. 張麗善(2006)。雲嘉地區勞工休閒參與對血壓、血脂肪及血糖影響之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2006。1-112。
  5. 謝大才(2007)。教師參與家庭日休閒活動動機及效益之研究---以新竹市為例。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-111。
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