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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 37 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] J.C. Chen, H.C. Lai, and S. Schaible. Complex fractional programming and the Charnes-Cooper transformation. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 126(1):203–213, 2005.
  2. [2] Ky Fan. Minimax theorems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 39:42–47, 1953.
  3. [3] R. Isaacs. Differential Games. Google Books, Dover, 1999.
  4. [6] H.C. Lai and T.Y. Huang. Optimality conditions for a nondifferentiable minimax programming in complex spaces. Nonlinear Analysis, 71:1205–1212,2009.
  5. [7] H.C. Lai and T.Y. Huang. Complex analysis methods related on Optimization problem with complex variable. European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 3(6):989–1005, 2010.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李孟學(2004)。台北市公辦民營室內溫水游泳池顧客運動參與行為與滿意度之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所學位論文。2004。1-403。
  2. 黃鈞亭(2008)。觀光整合行銷策略之研究-以士林觀光夜市及周邊商店街區為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2008。1-209。
  3. 黃海智(2017)。民眾搭乘高鐵從事國內旅遊意願之研究-以臺中市民眾為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2017。1-44。
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