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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 136 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王鴻彰(2002)。師資培育與教師進修 -- 配合九年一貫課程改革的一些想法。師友,422,27-31 。
  2. 吳耿賓(2008)。在職進修動機、障礙與意願之關聯研究-以國小教師為例。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士班論文,未出版。
  3. 吳瑋瑩(2004)。國立花蓮師範學院音樂教育系主修兒童音樂教育項目師資培育課程成效評估之研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  4. 林煌(2000)。我國中小學教師終身進修制度之研究 。國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所博士論文,未出版。
  5. 孟偉銘、高薰芳(2000)。國民小學教師在職進修成效之評鑑研究-以台北市為例。視聽教育,41(5),1-12。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 邱鴻燕(1999)。國中英語革新課程實施之個案研究。臺灣師範大學教育學系學位論文。1999。1-0。
  2. 董育明(2005)。國民中學語文〈英語〉學習領域實施九年一貫課程的現況之檢討。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2005。1-174。
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