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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 22 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 〔1〕 Lovello, A., Saw, R. and Stimson, J. (2005). “Product value-density: Managing diversity through supply chain segmentation.” International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(1), pp 142-158.
  2. 〔2〕 Womack, J. P., and Jones, D. T. “Lean Production: The Machine that changed the word” Harper Perennial, 1990.
  3. 〔3〕 Womack, J. P., and Jones, D. T. “Lean Thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation”, Simon & Schuster, 1996.
  4. 〔4〕 Liker, J. K., “The Toyota Way: 14 management principles from the world’s greatest manufacture”, Columbus, OH: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
  5. 〔6〕 Feld, W. M., 2001, Lean Manufacturing: Tools, Techniques, and How To Use Them, St. Lucie Press, FL.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鄧天強(2013)。消費者之服務補救期望分析–以民法規定為基礎。臺中科技大學企業管理系事業經營碩士班學位論文。2013。1-74。 
  2. 曾繽卉(2013)。國際觀光旅館餐廳主管觀點探討服務失誤與過度服務。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所在職專班學位論文。2013。1-47。 
  3. 張巧宜(2006)。餐飲業服務品質屬性與顧客滿意間不對稱及非線性關係之研究。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所學位論文。2006。1-90。 
  4. 郭懿萱(2010)。黑暗的關鍵時刻:餐飲業服務破壞行為探討。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-112。
  5. 黃博明(2011)。客家餐廳評鑑制度之檢視:新北市與苗栗縣個案分析。中央大學客家研究碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-418。
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