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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 67 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1]. Mouzon, G., 2008. Operational methods and models for minimization of energy consumption in a manufacturing environment. Wichita State University.
  2. [6]. Rahimifard, S., Seow, Y., and Childs, T., 2010, Minimising Embodied Product Energy to Support Energy Efficient Manufacturing. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 59(1) pp. 25-28.
  3. [7]. Draganescu, F., Gheorghe, M. & Doicin, C.V., 2003. Models of machine tool efficiency and specific consumed energy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology,141(1), pp.9–15.
  4. [10]. Thomas Behrendt., Andre Zei., Sangkee Min., 2012. Development of an energy consumption monitoring procedure for machine tools. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 61(1) pp. 43-46.
  5. [12]. Lirong Zhou., Jiangfeng Li., 2016. Energy consumption model and energy efficiency of machine tools: a comprehensive literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, (112):3721-3734.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張人文(2018)。虛實整合之加工精度與效能優化智能監控系統。中原大學機械工程研究所學位論文。2018。1-128。
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