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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林淑菁(2002)。國小資源班學生正整數乘除文字題之圖示教學效果研究-以臺北市一國小為例。國立臺北師範學院國民教育研究所特殊教育教學碩士班碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
  2. 林碧珍、蔡文煥(2006)。國小四年級學生在1991年IAEP評量工具的數學成就表現。國立新竹教育大學學報,22,271-305。
  3. 林寶玲(2012)。正負數量表徵的心理數線發展。中央大學學習與教學研究所碩士論文,未出版,桃園。
  4. 李虹韻(2010)。線圖策略對國小數學低成就學生兩步驟文字題之學習成效。國立臺北教育大學特殊教育學系特教教學碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
  5. 何縕琪(1994)。表徵策略教學對提升國小低解題正確率學生解題表現之效果研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
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