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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 77 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 14. 林榮禾、莊淳淩、莊景有、戴如君(2006),「入口網站的服務品質、顧客滿意及顧客忠誠度關係之研究」,電子商物學報,8(4),533-555
  2. 15. 何虹慶(2010),「網路購物知覺風險與顧客滿意度相關之研究-以購買3C產品為例」,朝陽科技大學保險金融管理研究所碩士論文。
  3. 1. Anderson, E. W. and Sullivan, M. W., 1993. “The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction foe firms.” Marketing science, Vol.12, pp. 25-43.
  4. 3. Cardozo, R. N., 1965. “An experimental study of customer effort, expectation, and satisfaction.” Journal of Marketing Research, pp. 244-249.
  5. 4. Caruana, Albert, 2002. “Service loyalty: The effects of service quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction.” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 36(7/8), pp. 811-828.
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