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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 30 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 3. Downes, L. & Mui, C. (1998), Unleashing the Killer App: Digital Strategies for Market Dominance,,邱文寶譯,12步打造數位企業,台北:天下文化。
  2. 5. Eisenmann, T. R. (2007), Managing Proprietary and Shared Platforms: A Life-Cycle View, Harvard Business School Press.
  3. 7. Gawer, A. & Cusumano, M. A. (2002), “The Elements of Platform Leadership”, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 43, pp.51-58.
  4. 8. Hagel, J. III & Armstrong, A. G. (1998), Net Gain: Expanding market trough virtual communities,朱道凱譯,網路商機:如何經營虛擬社群,台北:麥田。
  5. 11. Rochet, J. & Tirole, J,(2003), “An Economic Analysis of the Determination of Interchange Fees in Payment Card System”, Review of Network Economics, vol. 2, pp. 69-79.
Times Cited (7) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許雅嵐(2014)。以社會投資報酬率評估公共圖書館改善成果之研究。中興大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2014。1-141。 
  2. 鄧明宗(2010)。以交易成本專屬性探討台灣通訊經銷產業。中原大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-60。 
  3. 楊千霆(2014)。臺灣公共圖書館自動化科技建置與讀者服務之研究。臺灣大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2014。1-123。 
  4. 廖崇良(2010)。3C通路商雙邊平台建構之研究—以聯強國際為例。中原大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-74。
  5. 王怡璇(2011)。大學圖書館績效評估指標之研究。臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2011。1-181。
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