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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 62 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Barba, R., & Cardinale, L. ( 1991) . Are females invisible students? An investigation of teacher student questioning interactions.
  2. Bybee, R. W., & Kennedy, D. (2005). Math and science achievement. Science, 307, 481
  3. Cheung, W., & Huang, W. (2005). Proposing a framework to assess Internet usage in university education: An empirical investigation from a student’s perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 237–253.
  4. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in un-dergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.
  5. Dee, T. S. (2005). A teacher like me: Does race, ethnicity or gender matter? American Eco-nomic Review, 95(2), 158-165.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王映雪(2011)。教育訓練介入對長期照護機構照顧服務員之感染管制認知成效探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-124。 
  2. 李愛誠(2011)。居家護理與護理之家照護品質之探討。亞洲大學長期照護研究所學位論文。2011。1-84。
  3. 楊惠真(2012)。護理之家照顧服務品質之多層級分析_以中部地區四縣市為例。中正大學社會福利學系學位論文。2012。1-280。
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