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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 64 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王昭正與龔聖雄(2003)。服務失誤關鍵因素之研究─以國際觀光旅館為例。戶外遊憩研究,16(4),73-98。
  2. 王蕙雯(2012)。過度服務:藉由有形性設施及員工反應來探討消費者行為。未出版之碩士論文,元智大學,桃園縣。
  3. 林承賢(2004)。近五年來臺灣傳播學界博碩士論文使用網路問卷研究方法之后設分析。資訊社會研究,6,25-57。
  4. 孫路弘與李怡君(2011)。消費者對餐飲業過度服務現象認知研究。2011觀光產業經營管理學術研討會。台南:台灣首府大學。
  5. 孫路弘與張綉綾(2011)。運用網路探討餐飲業過度服務行為。2011觀光餐旅休閒永續發展與創新教育國際學術研討會。台北:德霖技術學院。
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