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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 113 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 參考文獻
  2. 一、中文部份
  3. 內政部兒童局(2007)。隔代教養、單親家庭戶數及兒童少年人口推估。2009年3月31日,取自:。
  4. 天主教善牧基金會主編(1997)。在生命的泥沼中成長。台北市:天主教善牧基金會。
  5. 王金永等(譯)(2000)。質化研究與社會工作。台北:紅葉文化。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鄭婷文(2010)。國小高年級學生家庭複合性與創造力之研究。國立臺北教育大學教育學系教育創新與評鑑碩士班學位論文。2010。1-142。 
  2. 李宜樺(2011)。離婚單親隔代教養家庭系統-以祖輩照顧者之觀點論之。政治大學社會工作研究所學位論文。2011。1-132。
  3. 史馥綺(2014)。最溫柔的戰士- 一位自閉症者的父親之父職經驗敘說研究。國立臺北教育大學心理與諮商學系學位論文。2014。1-120。
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