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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 91 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李?吟(1994) 。合作學習的技術層面。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所集刊,35,151-168。
  2. 李旻憲、張俊彥 (2004) 。地球科學教室學習環境問卷之研發與初探。科學教育學刊, 12(4), 421-443。
  3. 吳明隆 (2006) 。SPSS統計應用學習實務。知城數位科技股份有限公司。
  4. 吳慧珍 (2000) 。探討學生透過網際網路進行合作學習對其科學過程技能的影響。國立台灣師範大學地球科學研究所碩士,台北市。
  5. 徐新逸(1998)。情境教學中異質小組合作學習之實證研究。教育資料與圖書館學,36(1),30。
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 白佩宜(2008)。探討不同探究式教學法對高一學生科學探究能力成長之影響。臺灣師範大學地球科學系(暑期)教學碩士學位班學位論文。2008。1-127。
  2. 林嘉麗(2009)。運用合作學習於國中生數學解題歷程之現象探討。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-215。
  3. 陳佳玉(2010)。分段式評量教學法對高二學生數學學習成就之研究。政治大學應用數學系數學教學碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-145。
  4. 劉馨惠(2011)。多媒體教學對國中七年級學生細胞單元學習成就之影響。臺灣師範大學生物學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-154。
  5. 黃桂芝(2013)。運用擴增實境於科學探索情境設計之研究。臺北科技大學創新設計研究所學位論文。2013。1-116。
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