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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 94 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 14-15。
  2. 李寧遠(1984)。中老年人的保健。臺北:健康世界叢書編輯部。
  3. 尚憶薇(1999)。推廣臺灣老年休閒活動-以YMCA 的老年人休閒活動
  4. 臺北:張老師文化事業股份有限公司。
  5. 林慧珍(2000)。運動DIY 輕鬆走路做運動。健康世界,167,73-79。林瑞興(2000)。運動訓練對高血壓患者的效果探討。中華體育,13(3),
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林春豪(2007)。宜蘭地區高齡婦女晨間休閒運動涉入與身心健康之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-128。
  2. 盧尉安(2008)。看電視對老人休閒型態及人際關係互動歷程之影響。元智大學資訊社會學研究所學位論文。2008。1-170。
  3. 吳瑞祥(2010)。國中生校外教學活動休閒需求與滿意度之研究-以三鶯樹地區國中為例。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2010。1-111。
  4. 劉莉芬(2011)。登山步道登山健行者休閒動機與休閒體驗及休閒滿意度之研究-以屏東縣笠頂山登山步道為例。亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-102。
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