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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 90 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王天苗(1983)。國中小資源教室實施狀況之調查研究。特殊教育季刊,10,14-25 。
  2. 白青平(2000)。台北縣市國民小學初任教師工作困擾與解決途徑之研究。國立台北師範院碩士論文(未出版)。
  3. 吳佳臻(2006)。國民中學特殊教育教師在職進修需求之研究。國立台中師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
  4. 房拓成(2002)。創意活力永保鮮-闡析教師專業評鑑制度。師友月刊,423,39-43。
  5. 林錦杏(1999)。國民小學校長專業成長需求之研究。國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
Times Cited (17) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林宜君(2010)。國民中學教師在融合教育下之工作壓力與專業需求研究:以台北縣為例。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-177。 
  2. 徐淇新(2013)。國民小學客語支援教師教學困擾與專業成長需求之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2013。1-139。 
  3. 楊蕙禎(2009)。台南縣市高職特教班教師教學困擾調查研究。臺東大學進修部暑期課程與教學碩專學位論文。2009。1-204。 
  4. 黃思峻(2008)。特殊教育心理評量教師鑑定工作現況與工作困擾之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期特教碩士班學位論文。2008。1-117。 
  5. 黃淑萍(2008)。雲林縣國民小學普通班教師運用特殊教育資源現況與需求之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期特教碩士班學位論文。2008。1-164。 
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