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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 34 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Crook, S. (2009). Embedding Scratch in the classroom. International Journal of Learning and Media, 1(4), 17-21.
  2. Delclos, V. R., Littlefield, J., & Bransford, J. D. (1985). Teaching thinking hrough Logo: The importance of method. Roeper Review, 7(3), 153-156.
  3. Fesakis, G., & Serafeim, K. (2009). Influence of the familiarization with scratch on future teachers' opinions and attitudes about programming and ICT in education. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 41(3), 258-262.
  4. Hsu, H. M., & Wang, G. C. (2011). Game design with Scratch: Implications on computer support for collaborative learning. Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2011 International Conference on (pp. 3193-3196).
  5. Kafai, Y., Roque, R., Fields, D., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2011). Collaboration by choice: Youth online creative collabs in Scratch. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education.
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 項志偉(2015)。翻轉教室教學模式導入國小資訊課程對批判性思考能力之影響。淡江大學教育科技學系數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-90。 
  2. 郭文明(2015)。前導組織策略對國小三年級學生Scratch程式設計學習態度與學習成效之影響。淡江大學教育科技學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-134。 
  3. 周俊欽(2017)。以兩階段提示為基礎之不插電程式設計系統對學生程式運算思維之影響。國立臺北教育大學數學暨資訊教育學系學位論文。2017。1-76。 
  4. 王信淵(2018)。大學生運用Scratch的學習成效、學習態度 與解決問題的能力。國立臺北教育大學資訊科學系學位論文。2018。1-63。 
  5. 蕭杏純(2017)。合作學習法於程式積木學習成效及學習態度之研究--以高市某國小為例。樹德科技大學資訊管理系碩士班學位論文。2017。1-79。
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