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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 58 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳清山(1998):學校效能研究。台北:五南。
  2. 黃嘉莉(2003)︰教師專業及其制度化之歷史發展。國立臺灣師範大學教育學系博士論文,未出版,台北市。
  3. 張素貞(2004):國民小學身心障礙資源班教師專業成長之研究—以知能分析和方案規劃為例。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育研究所博士論文,未出版,台北市。
  4. 謝靜萃(2008):台北縣國民小學特教組長工作困擾之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系身心障礙特教教學碩士論文,未出版。
  5. Arnon, S., & Reichel, N. (2007). Who Is the Ideal Teacher? Am I? Similarity and Difference in Perception of Students of Education regarding the Qualities of a Good Teacher and of Their Own Qualities as Teachers. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13 (5), 441-464.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃雅婷(2012)。桃園縣國小特殊教育教師生活壓力與休閒態度之研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2012。1-143。 
  2. 彭怡婷(2013)。特教行政工作的理想與挑戰-國中特教組長的聲音。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系學位論文。2013。1-156。
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