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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 73 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林惠芬(2002) : 啟智教育教師效能之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學報,16期,141-157頁。
  2. 林惠芬(2003): 啟智教育教師效能及其相關研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學報,17期,39-61頁。
  3. 李總縯(2002) : 組織氣候、組織認同、組織效能之關聯性-以非營利事業組織獅子會為例。私立中原大學企業管理研究所,碩士論文,未出版。
  4. 李莉莉(2002) : 台北市國民小學激勵策略與教師效能之研究。國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所,碩士論文,未出版。
  5. 邱柏翔(2001) : 國民小學教師效能之研究:以桃園縣為例。國立台北師範學院國民教育所,碩士論文,未出版。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 曹瑋瑩(2013)。桃園縣公立高級中學學校組織氣氛與教師兼任行政職務意願影響因素之研究。交通大學教育研究所學位論文。2013。1-166。 
  2. 詹雅帆(2012)。國民中學特殊教育教師專業承諾與教師效能之研究。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-114。
  3. 倪明賢(2012)。特殊教育學校組織氣氛與教師兼任行政職務意願影響因素之研究。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-128。
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