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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 65 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石玲惠(2004):低社經地位家長的親職教育。師友,448,71-73。
  2. 程婉毓、孫淑柔(2008):國小啟智班學生家庭需求及家庭支援服務之調查研究。特殊教育研究學刊,33(3),55-75。
  3. 楊雅瑱(2006):家長參與身心障礙學生個別化教育計畫相關問題之探討。特教論壇,1,67-76。
  4. 劉城晃(1996):國小啟智班親職教育方案的發展與成效研究。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文,未出版。
  5. 劉曉娟、林惠芬(2003):中部地區國中啟智班家長參與個別化教育計畫會議之研究。特殊教育學報,18,1-19。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許凱文(2013)。國中特教班家長參與及滿意度之研究-以新北市為例。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2013。1-119。
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