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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 67 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林華一(2007)。零起點日籍學習者之漢語聲調習得。台北市:國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
  2. 陳氏金鸞(2005)。越南學生漢語聲調偏誤分析。台北市:國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
  3. 曾金金、張月馨、陳靜子(2007)。線上聲調自我檢測系統建制及效果評估。華語文教學研究,第四卷第二期,載於曾金金(2008)編著的華語語音資料庫及數位學習應用。台北:新學林。232-248。
  4. 鄭昭明(2006)。認知心理學:理論與實踐。台北市:桂冠圖書。
  5. Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 阮靖芳(2013)。針對母語為法語的學習者從語調與中文聲調相對應關係之探討與其教學策略。中原大學應用華語文研究所學位論文。2013。1-300。 
  2. 朱珊慧(2011)。西班牙語母語者之華語中介語音分析。臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所學位論文。2011。1-202。
  3. 姜瑞涵(2012)。德籍學習者之 漢語雙音節聲調研究。臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所學位論文。2012。1-131。
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