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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 83 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 沈翠吟(2003):國民中學特教組長工作壓力與因應策略之研究。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系在職進修碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  2. 李美慧(2009):臺北市國民中小學特教教師對特殊教育評鑑意見之調查研究。國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系特殊教育行政碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  3. 吳宛芯(2009):臺北市國中資源班教師工作投入、自我效能及工作壓力之研究。國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系身心障礙特教教學碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  4. 林水波(2006):領導新論。台北市:五南。
  5. 林昶菁(2005):台北縣市國民中小學特殊教育行政協商之研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系特殊教育碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 彭盈婕(2014)。高職餐旅群專業教師的自我評價與無力感對教學熱忱影響之研究-以台中市為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2014。1-91。
  2. 蕭克忠(2016)。學校組織變化與人事人員工作疏離感之研究-以臺中市國民小學為例。中興大學國家政策與公共事務研究所學位論文。2016。1-140。
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