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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 姜善迪(2008):一人一機合作學習環境的學習效益探討。未出版碩士論文,國立台灣師範大學資訊教育研究所,臺北市。
  2. 許佩棋(2007):應用PDA支援專題學習—學生學習成效及互動行為分析。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學資訊教育研究所,臺北市。
  3. 許瑛昭、廖桂菁(2003):情境式網路學習環境互動行為分析:以高中地球科學線上學習為例。師大學報:科學教育類。48(1),93-118。
  4. 曾瑞蓮(2000):從維高斯基的社會文化談博物館兒童探索空間之設置規劃。科技博物,4(6),18-30。
  5. Bales, R. F. (1950). A Set of Categories for the Analysis of Small Group Interaction. American Sociological Review, 15(2), 257-263.
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