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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 65 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳章明(2004)。運動教練的領導哲學。大專體育,72,72-75。
  2. 吳燕妮(2008)。跆拳道運動教練專業能力之研究。未出版碩士論文,輔仁大學,臺北縣。
  3. 林華韋、廖主民、魏子閎(2003)。運動教練講習會教練培育過程之評析研究-以棒球項目為例。教練科學,2,239-248。
  4. 林華駿(2005)。放空鐘~扯鈴。屏師體育,9,204-211。
  5. 涂志賢(2000)。學校專任運動教練組織承諾與專業承諾之研究。體育學報,29,35-45。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳文展(2012)。臺灣民俗體育發展之研究—以臺南市新山國小扯鈴為例。長榮大學運動休閒管理學系(所)學位論文。2012。1-188。 
  2. 吳佩伊(Pei-Yi Wu);林靜萍(Ching-Ping Lin)(2012)。韻律體操教練專業能力之探討。中華體育季刊。26(4)。515-521。 
  3. 林品緯(2012)。工作限制對學習扯鈴長拋鈴之影響。臺灣師範大學運動科學研究所學位論文。2012。1-44。
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