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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 119 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳武典、陳秀蓉 (1978)。教師領導行為與學生的期待、學業成就及生活適應。教育心理學報,11,87-104。
  2. 林瑞欽(1990)。國小資優兒童學業自我概念、一般自我概念與學業成就的關係研究。國科會專題研究計畫成果報告,0103-H-81A-F-253。
  3. 卓石能(2002)。都市原住民學童族群認同與其自我概念生活適應之關係研究。屏東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
  4. 洪光遠、楊國樞(1979)。歸因特質的測量與研究。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,48,89-154。
  5. 郭生玉 (1973)。國中低成就學生心理特質之分析研究。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所集刊,15,頁451-534。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪偉銘(2015)。教師性別及高中學生知覺教師期望對數學學習成就表現影響之研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-80。 
  2. 許囷芸(2014)。新移民子女數學學習態度之研究 -以桃園縣一所國民小學為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2014。1-89。 
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