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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 189 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王宏彰(2005)。不同世代國中小學教師工作價值與休閒需求之研
  2. 王註源(2005)。桃園縣國中教師休閒運動參與現況及其阻礙因素
  3. 王天威(2005)。台北縣青少年女性休閒運動參與狀況與阻礙因素
  4. 朱紹文(2009)。苗栗縣教師休閒運動參與動機與阻礙因素之研究。
  5. 李仁佐(2007)。台中縣市高中職學生休閒運動參與動機及阻礙之
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王乃玉(2012)。十二週休閒運動介入對國小二年級學童健康體適能之探討─以雲林縣大埤國小為例。虎尾科技大學休閒遊憩研究所學位論文。2012。1-163。
  2. 江明益(2014)。工業區從業人員休閒運動阻礙研究- 以雲林縣豐田工業區為例。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2014。1-98。
  3. 曾俊達(2014)。南投縣埔里鎮國小教師休閒運動阻礙及休閒運動參與之研究。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2014。1-71。
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