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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 141 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林懿萱(2001)新制實習制度下國中理化實習教師的專業成長:質性個案研究。台北:台灣師範大學化學研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  2. 林懿萱、黃芳裕(2000)新制實習制度下的理化實習教師之專業成長研究。第十六屆科學教育學術研討會短篇論文彙編,頁679-686。
  3. 唐韶鈴(2002)實習教師在不同學校社群文化與不同實習輔導理念下的專業成長表現研究。台北:台灣師範大學化學研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  4. 高強華(1992)。教師信念研究及其在學校教育革新上的意義。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所集刊,34,85-114。
  5. 黃芳裕(1994)學生使用科學知識省察表徵分析。台北:國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所博士論文,未出版。
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