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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張君松(2005)。泰國學生學習中文成語的困難及教學補救策略研究。臺北:國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
  2. 陳淑惠(2007)。法律華語教材設計與研究。臺北:國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
  3. 潘先軍(2009)。類固定短語與對外漢語詞彙教學。漢字文化,2,60-62。
  4. 蔡智敏(2001)。印尼學生學習四字格成語的困難及教學補救策略。臺北:國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
  5. James Dean Brown,周燕導讀(2001)。語言教學大綱要素:課程設計系統法The elements of language curriculum : a systematic approach to program development 。北京:外語教學與研究。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林冠宇(2013)。華語四字成語教材之設計研究─兼論教學活動對成語教學之重要性。中原大學應用華語文研究所學位論文。2013。1-159。 
  2. 林宥榛(2013)。法文版零起點華語發音 紙本教材之設計原則初探。臺灣師範大學華語文教學系學位論文。2013。1-162。
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