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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 卜小蝶(2002)。使用者導向之圖書分類關聯分析研究。圖書資訊學刊,17,81-94。
  2. 柯皓仁、楊雅雯、吳安琪、戴玉旻、楊維邦 (2002)。個人化及群體化圖書館資訊服務初探。國家圖書館館刊,1,161-195。
  3. 陳垂呈(2005)。利用資料探勘技術發掘圖書館個人化之書籍推薦。教育資料與圖書館學,43(1),87-107。
  4. 陳垂呈(2008)。利用關聯規則發掘讀者適性化之書籍推薦。圖書與資訊學刊, 65,58-60。
  5. 謝建成、林湧順(2006)。書目探勘讀者使用圖書館之行為。教育資料與圖書館學,44(1),35-60。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李威毅(2012)。書目探勘資料之清理研究-以問卷資料為例。臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2012。1-61。
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